Thanks a lot for your question. You’ve done good research there and actually spotted the exact part of the Acceptable Ads Standard that is relevant to your question.
Getting back to your reverse conclusions:
It is allowed to refresh ads when the primary content has changed?
The typical use case here is that the user clicks on any given link and goes to another website part (e.g. a different article on a publisher page). Naturally here the primary content changes and there it’s perfectly fine to serve new ads.
It is allowed to refresh ads while they're not visible?
There’s no issue with this. The underlying notion is that the visible motion of the element change would annoy the user.
Example: If let’s say there is an ad with content A that runs above the fold and the users navigate down (far enough to so that the entire ad disappears) and then go back up and the ad reloads content B while the users are on their way up (without the instance of the actual ad content change being visible to the user) that should be fine.
Hope this answer has already helped you.
In case this did not fully answer your question, would it be fine for you to share your website with us (email@example.com
)? It’s much easier to advise when actually seeing how the website behaves.